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Buffer State – what the heck is that?

Roberto Henry Ebelt

25.11.2011

Buffer State – what the heck is that?

Se a palavra STATE significa ESTADO, certamente BUFFER deve estar funcionando como adjetivo. Porém BUFFER, em um computador, é um local, geralmente na memória RAM, portanto o BUFFER em um computador não é um adjetivo e sim um substantivo, conforme a descrição abaixo:

BUFFER is a location in the memory designated for temporary storage.

In computer science, a buffer is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily hold data while it is being moved from one place to another. Typically, the data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device (such as a mouse) or just before it is sent to an output device (such as speakers). However, a buffer may be used when moving data between processes within a computer. This is comparable to buffers in telecommunication. Buffers can be implemented in a fixed memory location in hardware - or by using a virtual data buffer in software, pointing at a location in the physical memory. In all cases, the data stored in a data buffer, are stored on a physical storage media. A majority of buffers are implemented in software, which typically use the faster RAM to store temporary data, due to the much faster access time compared with Hard Disk Drives. Buffers are typically used when there is a difference between the rate at which data is received and the rate at which it can be processed, or in the case that these rates are variable, for example in a printer spooler or in online video streaming.

A buffer often adjusts timing by implementing a queue (or FIFO) algorithm in memory, simultaneously writing data into the queue at one rate and reading it at another rate.

RAM: tipo de memória – RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY – memória de acesso aleatório é a sua tradução.

Interessante lembrar que ROM é outro tipo de memória: READ ONLY MEMORY – MEMÓRIA APENAS PARA LEITURA. A memória ROM não pode ser manipulada pelo usuário.

Enquanto que a primeira (RAM) fica armazenada nos pentes de memória ou, se for necessário, em uma pequena porção do Hard Disk o que torna o seu acesso mais lento, a memória ROM é armazenada em um CD ou DVD não regravável.

Mas a pergunta que é o título deste artigo não se refere a computadores. O seu campo é a geografia. BUFFER STATE significa ESTADO TAMPÃO. As palavras STATE e ESTADO, nesse caso, não têm o significado mais comum, como na frase THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA ou O ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, pois nem a Califórnia nem o Rio Grande do Sul são ESTADOS SOBERANOS (países). As palavras STATE e ESTADO podem se referir a um país.

BUFFER STATE é o que conhecemos, em português como estado tampão. Qual é o estado tampão mais próximo de nós? O Uruguai, que, pelo menos no passado, funcionava como algodão entre os cristais (Brasil e Argentina). Outro BUFFER STATE próximo a nós é o Paraguai, que também servia para amortecer os choques entre os argentinos e nós brasileiros.

A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. Buffer states, when authentically independent, typically pursue a neutralist foreign policy, which distinguishes them from satellite states. The conception of buffer states is part of the theory of balance of power that entered European strategic and diplomatic thinking in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the manipulation of buffer states like Afghanistan and the Central Asian emirates was an element in the diplomatic "Great Game" played out between the British and Russian Empire for control of the approaches to strategic mountain passes that led to British India. They are in Southeast Asia.

Other examples of buffer states include:
• Kingdom of Hungary, and later Transylvania between the Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire; see also Banat.

• Tibet was a buffer between czarist Russia, the British Raj, and Qing China in the early 20th century.

• Mongolia, between the People's Republic of China and Russia

• Poland following World War I, located between Germany and the Soviet Union

• North Korea during and after the Cold War, seen by some analysts as a buffer state between the military forces of the People's Republic of China and American forces in South Korea

• The Sultanate of Aceh, located on the north part of Sumatra, as a buffer state between Kingdom of the Netherlands, ruler of Dutch East Indies and British Empire, ruler of Malaya.

• The colony of Georgia in the 18th century, as a buffer state between Spanish-controlled Florida and the American colonies that comprised the Atlantic Seaboard.

• Neutral Austria, Sweden and Finland were buffer states during the Cold War.

• Belgium before World War I, serving as a buffer between France, Prussia (after 1871 the German Empire), the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

• Siam — The king of Siam (now Thailand) had to surrender his country's hegemony over Laos and Cambodia and to grant commercial concessions to France, but managed to retain independence as a buffer state between French Indochina and the British Raj.

• The Rhineland served as a demilitarized buffer zone between France and Germany during the inter-war years of the 1920s and early 1930s. There were early French attempts at creating a Rhineland Republic.

• The Far Eastern Republic was a buffer state separating Bolshevik Russia from Imperial Japan

• Uruguay served as a demilitarized buffer zone between Argentina and the Empire of Brazil during the early independence period in South America.

• Paraguay was maintained after the end of the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870 as a territory separating Argentina and Brazil.

• Afghanistan was a buffer state between the British Empire (which ruled much of South Asia) and Russian Empire (which ruled much of Central Asia) during the Anglo–Russian conflicts in Asia during the 19th century.

• The Himalayan nations of Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim were buffer-states between the British and Chinese empires, later between China and India, which in 1962 fought the Sino-Indian War in places where the two regional powers bordered each other.

• Canada, during the Cold War, between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Canada, since the fall of the Soviet Union, arguably, is also an economic, although to a lesser extent, political, client state of the U.S.
Soviet forces would have, in some scenarios, had to cross Canadian territory and fly through Canadian airspace in order to reach the U.S.
Russia viewed Canada more favorably and with less belligerence than the U.S. (particularly after the Avro Arrow and Bomarc missile affairs--which, in essence, meant that Canada was no longer, independently of the U.S., a military threat to the U.S.S.R. after 1972).
A Soviet invasion of Canada would almost certainly have triggered war, and both the U.S. and Canada planned for such scenarios actively and intensively--not because the Soviets were thought to have independent, direct belligerence towards Canada, but because of the manifest necessity to use Canada, in a Soviet-U.S. post-Cold War wartime scenario. Legally, by international law between Canada and the U.S., an attack on the U.S. is viewed as an attack on Canada, and vice versa (because of NORAD) although in any reasonable geopolitical wartime strategy, Canada would be deemed distinct from the U.S.

The invasion of a buffer state by one of the powers surrounding it will often result in war between the powers. For example, in 1914 the German invasion of Belgium triggered the entry of Great Britain into World War I.

The earlier forms of highly defended border regions, where defensive castles stood at a distance of a day's march are discussed at Marches. Some political remains of borderland marches established under the Carolingian and Ottonian Empires can be seen on the European map today: Belgium, Luxembourg, Lorraine. The Carolingian Empire also created some independent duchies in the Pyrenean border acting as buffer states against the Muslim kingdoms, an area called the Hispanic March, giving form to today's Andorra and the region of Catalonia.

Even earlier, compare the highly-defended Roman Empire's limes with its "client kingdoms" like Palmyra, Judaea, Numidia or Mauretania, and the Persian Empire's system of satrapies.


*The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Germanic Kings (919-1024), named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin. The family itself is also sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers are also regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, as successors of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and Charlemagne, who is commonly viewed as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire. (Source Wikipedia.com).
 

 

Have an excellent weekend and SAVE WATER.


Tags: Roberto Henry Ebelt, ensino, inglês


Roberto Henry Ebelt é professor, escritor, escreveu uma coluna semanal para o Jornal do Comércio de Porto Alegre entre 2001 e 2013, e é diretor do curso HENRY'S BUSINESS ENGLISH desde 1971.

Seu mais recente livro, O QUE VOCÊ DEVE SABER ANTES DE ESTUDAR INGLÊS, pode ser encontrado nas livrarias Disal, Cultura e SBS ou à rua Hoffmann, 728 em Porto Alegre.

E-mail: roberto@henrys.com.br
Fone (51) 3222-3144
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