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Roberto Henry Ebelt



CARNIVAL is a Western Christian festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent (Quaresma, em português – período de 40 dias que antecedem as festas cristãs relacionadas à Paixão de Cristo. Os 40 dias, na verdade, não incluem os domingos do período que deve ser contado retroativamente, a partir do domingo de Páscoa).

LENT (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer through prayer, penance, repentance of sins, almsgiving (doação de esmolas), atonement*, and self-denial. This event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches also observe the Lenten season. Its institutional purpose is heightened in the annual commemoration of Holy Week, marking the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the tradition and events of the New Testament beginning on Friday of Sorrows (uma semana antes da Sexta-feira Santa), further climaxing on Jesus' crucifixion on Good Friday*, which ultimately culminates in the joyful celebration on Easter Sunday of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

*Good Friday: Sexta-feira Santa.

*ATONEMENT: indenização, compensação, reparação, satisfação. 2. expiação, redenção. 3. (arch) reconciliação, concórdia. Day of Atonement: Dia de Reconciliação.

*FRIDAY OF SORROWS: The Friday of Sorrows (veja explicação acima) is a solemn pious remembrance of the sorrowful Blessed Virgin Mary on the Friday before Palm Sunday held in the fifth week of Lent (formerly called "Passion Week"). In certain Catholic countries, especially in Mexico, Guatemala, Italy, Peru, Spain, Malta, Nicaragua and the Philippines, it is seen as the beginning of the Holy Week celebrations and termed as Viernes de Dolores (Friday of Sorrows). It takes place exactly one week before Good Friday, and concentrates on the emotional pain that the Passion of Jesus Christ caused to his mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary, who is venerated under the title Our Lady of Sorrows (Nossa Senhora das  Dores).

Like all Fridays in Lent, this Friday is a day of abstinence from meat, unless the national episcopal conference has indicated alternative forms of penance.

A similar commemoration in sympathy with the Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Solitude is held on Black Saturday (o sábado anterior ao domingo de Páscoa, conhecido por nós como Sábado de Aleluia)


CARNIVAL: The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide (or Pre-Lent). Carnival typically involves a public celebration and/or parade combining some elements of a circus, masks, and a public street party. People wear masks and costumes during many such celebrations, allowing them to lose their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity.  Excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods proscribed (proibidos) during Lent is extremely common. Other common features of carnival include mock (mock: falso, imitado) battles such as food fights; social satire and mockery (zombaria) of authorities; the grotesque body displaying exaggerated features, especially large noses, bellies, mouths, and phalli, or elements of animal bodies; abusive language and degrading acts; depictions (depiction: descrição, representação) of disease and gleeful (glee: alegria. Gleeful: alegre, divertido) death; and a general reversal of everyday rules and norms.

The term Carnival is traditionally used in areas with a large Catholic presence. In historically Lutheran countries, the celebration is known as Fastelavn, and in areas with a high concentration of Anglicans and Methodists, pre-Lenten celebrations, along with penitential observances, occur on Shrove Tuesday (esta data refere-se a terça-feira de carnaval, sendo também conhecida como terça-feira gorda).

Rio de Janeiro's carnival is considered the world's largest, hosting approximately two million participants per day.

Verbo TO SHRIVE, SHROVE SHRIVEN: confessar-se (no sentido católico da palavra). Archaic (of a priest) hear the confession of, assign penance to, and absolve. (To shrive oneself) present oneself to a priest for confession, penance, and absolution.

Have an excellent holiday weekend (= feriadão).

Tags: Roberto Henry Ebelt, inglês, artigo, coluna, Ebelt

Roberto Henry Ebelt é professor, escritor, escreveu uma coluna semanal para o Jornal do Comércio de Porto Alegre entre 2001 e 2013, e é diretor do curso HENRY'S BUSINESS ENGLISH desde 1971.

Seu mais recente livro, O QUE VOCÊ DEVE SABER ANTES DE ESTUDAR INGLÊS, pode ser encontrado nas livrarias Disal, Cultura e SBS ou à rua Hoffmann, 728 em Porto Alegre.

E-mail: roberto@henrys.com.br
Fone (51) 3222-3144
Página no Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/henrysbusinessnglish/?pnref=lhc

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